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CHAVI: A Multi Center Acute HIV-1 Infection Prospective Observational Cohort Study

Project Focus
HIV/AIDS; Acute HIV; HIV Vaccines

Project Location

Esselen Street Clinic, Hillbrow, Johannesburg

Duration of Project

2006 – 2010

Project Partners

Centre for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology (CHAVI) - Duke University, University of North Carolina.

Project Donors
US National Institutes of Health (NIH), via CHAVI

Dr Vincent Okwuolise and Dr Claire von Mollendorf

Project Aims /Objectives
To collect biological specimens to study the HIV-1 virus, the host response, the genetic factors that determine HIV transmission and viral set point.

Primary objectives:
  • To determine the prevalence of acute HIV infection at the participating sites;
  • To determine the characteristics of the transmitted virus in acute HIV-1 infection;
  • To determine the host acquired and inate immune responses that contribute to virus control and/or protection against infection with HIV-1;
  • To determine genetic factors that contribute to early virus control and/or protection from infection;
  • To examine the clinical, laboratory and behavioural characteristics of individuals at diverse sites with acute HIV infection and their sexual partners, and appropriate controls.
Project Activities
Recruit approximately 1300 participants internationally, (sites in Malawi, South Africa, Tanzania and USA), who are 18 years or older and will be enrolled into the study. Eligible participants will be placed into one of the following four study groups:
  • Group 1 – Proven acute HIV-1 infection: approximately 600 in total
  • Group 1a – Sexual partners of members of Group 1 : approximately 600 in total
  • Group 2 – Established HIV-1 infection : approximately 50 total
  • Group 3 – HIV-1 negative : approximately 50 total
The study duration will be approximately 84 months with accrual requiring approximately 60 months. Each participant will be followed up for 24 months.

Anticipated/Actual Results
Specimens collected during the study will be used to describe the immune response to HIV-1 and identify markers for HIV vaccine development.

Additional Outputs
  • Contribution to protocol development
  • Development of behavioral component protocol
  • Site development
Future Plans
Further Acute HIV Infection & Vaccine development studies.

Projects in the STI's & HIV Research Cluster:

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